By the 1970’s, there was an increasing global concern that the Earth’s ozone layer was being destroyed. Although the cause was not yet clear, there was general suspicion of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons and other similar chemicals.In March 1985, Vienna Convention (an agreement on cooperation in research and monitoring of CFCs production and emissions) was established.
The Convention did not require countries to take any concrete actions to control ozone depleting substances. Instead, a provision for Protocols to control these substances was added.
It advocates for appropriate measures to protect human health and the environment against adverse effects resulting or likely to result from human activities, which modify or are likely to modify the ozone layer. The convention was signed by 197 Parties and Lesotho passed the instrument of accession to this treaty in 1994. Vienna Convention handbook
An international treaty called The Montreal Protocol on substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) was established in 1987. It is aimed at saving the earth’s ozone layer by gradually eliminating the production and consumption of the ozone depleting substances and enforce the Vienna Convention. The Montreal Protocol is signed by 197 countries.See Montreal Protocol ratification
The Protocol has gone under several amendments, which include:
|1990||London Amendment||Adapted to phase out Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), Halons, Carbon tetrachloride (CTC) and Methyl chloroform.||2010|
|1992||Copenhagen Amendment||Accelerated to phase out Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), Halons, Carbon tetrachloride (CTC) and Methyl chloroform.||2010|
|1997||Montreal Amendment||Adapted to phase out Hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) in Article 5 parties and for Methyl Bromide (MB) in all parties.||2010|
|1999||Beijing Amendment||Tightened the control on the production and trade in HCFCs and adapted a phase out schedule for bromochloromethane.||20110|
|2016||Kigali Amendment||Advocates for Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC).||2018|
The Multilateral Fund was established in 1991 to assist developing countries meet their Montreal Protocol commitments. The fund supports Parties whose annual ODS consumption falls below a specific threshold to comply with the control measures of the protocol.